It is suggested that this burgeoning of commerce was the result of the networks of Chinese and other Muslim refugees who had fled China for South East Asia in the late 14th century linking with the Ming-sponsored maritime voyages of the early 15th century. The increased use of picis and more other common media of exchange was a direct result of this.
On the software side of political organization, the administrative and bureaucratic systems which the Ming introduced to Jiaozhi and Tai “native offices” were adopted and utilized by Dai Viet from the late 1420s onwards, and by Tai polities in the latter part or the century. This new “legibility” allowed states to prosper, consolidate and expand.
— Wade, Southeast Asia in the 15th century, in volume of same title, Wade, Sun ed.